The numbering, bold lettering, and additional paragraph forms have been added as a help for the reader.
1. Gospel justification is an act of the gracious will of God, by which the elect are constituted completely and immutably just, or righteous, in Christ Jesus, by the imputation of his righteousness to. their persons. Union with the glorious Mediator is the basis upon which it rests ; as no man is justified who is not united to him, so no man is unjustified who is united to him. We have no authority whatever in the Holy Scriptures, to say either that a person who is not in him is righteous, or that one who is in him is unrighteous : it is in him that all the seed of Israel are justified ; because in him they have righteousness.
2. Justification is an article of the utmost importance, because an article in which both the honour of God, and the felicity of his people, are deeply interested, and firmly united ; we should, therefore, neither think of it with indifference, nor treat it with lightness ; but contemplate it with the greatest solemnity, and discuss it with the utmost care. No part of it is trivial ; all the circumstances attending it are of moment :-of such moment, that the omission of but one of them would have entirely changed the nature of the wondrous scheme-would have diminished both the glory arising from it to God who justifies, and the bliss which it affords to man who is justified.
The dates of very important human transactions are, in general, of considerable consequence, therefore particular regard is paid to them ; and when such transactions are made public, accurate specifications of their dates appear. Now, as no transactions, which are human and earthly, are equal in importance to those of the Most High ; as among all his wonderful works, no one makes a more noble figure upon the scale of importance, than this of justification ; and as the same infallible wisdom which formed the scheme of it, superintended its publication, we cannot give a moment's indulgence to the thought, that in the mirror of divinely inspired revelation, its date is attended with obscurity.
3. It is affirmed above, that union with Christ is the foundation of justification ; by this position we must abide until force-force of evidence, that it is erroneous,-compels us to retreat. Now to the law and to the testimony. "Of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us righteousness."
The same glorious person who has fixed us in Christ, has made him our righteousness. Who will undertake to prove that he did not do both at the same instant ? But more will be said upon this subject in its proper place; my present business is, to inquire after the date of our union with the Saviour, and when that is ascertained, we shall soon perceive, whether time or eternity marks the date of our justification.
Some divines of high respectability, have represented the union of the elect with Christ, as commencing with their faith in him ; and others have considered faith as the efficient cause of this union, affirming that it unites them to him. Though I hope always to pay all due respect to men of learning, of talents, and of eminence in the church of Christ, yet I cannot persuade myself to place implicit confidence in them, and to embrace what they advance, without proving it by the scriptures of truth ; and having brought the above sentiments to this test, and maturely considered them, I confess, that, to me, they appear erroneous.
It is, I think, evident beyond all contradiction, that union with Christ has the precedence of faith in him ; and the subsequent arguments, each of which is founded upon scripture, will, it is hoped, support this sentiment.
4. No sinner can truly believe in God our Saviour, prior to his regeneration. Living faith is the effect of spiritual life, but no unregenerate person has spiritual life; therefore, no unregenerate person has living faith. The accuracy of this argument is evinced by the words of our Lord : " he that liveth and believeth in me, though he were dead yet shall he live." Here spiritual life is the antecedent, faith the consequent, and eternal life the promised portion of the man who lives and believes. Again, as faith and hope are kindred graces inseparably connected, and as the one cannot exist without the other, they must arise from the same principle ; and as men are begotten again by the Father of mercies to a lively hope, they must be also begotten again by him to a lively faith; there must be a divine operation in the soul, before there can be either power or inclination to believe; or else faith would be of ourselves, and the following scriptures would be untrue : "Thou hast wrought all our works in us." 1° It is God that worketh in you both to will and to do." -The faith of the operation of God." -The fruit of the Spirit is faith."
5. Antecedent to any gracious operation of the Holy Spirit, the divine almighty agent by whom the work of faith is begun and carried on with power, there must be a communication of him, from the head of the church, in whom it hath pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell : all fulness of the Holy Ghost, as well as of grace and of glory. It would not be consonant to either scripture or reason, to say that the work of grace is begun in any man before the Spirit of grace is communicated to him. We learn from the divine pages, those infallible oracles, whose voice is decisive, and from whose authority there can be no appeal, that sinners dead in trespasses and sins, are represented under the striking emblems of bones dead and dry, and that the divine Spirit, figuratively called wind and breath, must really blow upon them, and enter into them, before they can live spiritually ; that to convince the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment, the Spirit of truth must come; that the gracious Redeemer, for the very purpose of making his words known to the simple, pours out his Spirit upon them ; that the Comforter, in order to guide us into all truth, to testify of Christ, to take of his and shew it unto us, and to diffuse his divine delights through our sorrowful souls, must be with us, must be in us ; that the children of God, that they may know their adoption, and cry abba, Father, have the Spirit of the Son sent into their hearts; and that before the unbelieving, impenitent, and prayerless, can believe, repent, and pray, the Spirit of grace and supplication is poured out upon them. Is it possible to resist, with effect, the profusion of evidence which is poured in upon us, by prophets, by apostles, and by the Lord of both? No, we are compelled to believe, confess, and declare, that the divine Spirit must be imparted by Christ to his people, and that he must really dwell in them, prior to their regeneration. Reason too, ever in unison with the divine pages, declares that when and wherever a work of any kind is performed, the agent who performs it must be present.
The man who formed this sheet of paper upon which I now write was present, at the time when, and the place where it was made ; had be been absent, he could not have been the maker of it. Nor, in the nature of things, can the Holy Spirit be the author of 'any gracious operation in the soul of man, unless he be present there.
6. And as previous to the work of the Holy Ghost in the highly favoured vessels of infinite mercy, there must be a communication of him to them, so prior to any such communication there must be a union between them, and the illustrious person, by whom he is gratuitously imparted. Christ is styled the vine, and his people are called the branches ; he is denominated the head, and they are termed his body. This is figurative language, and the figures which are here introduced, being selected, from the almost infinite variety of the boundless store of nature,-selected by that wisdom which framed the universe ; invented the numberless species of creatures; formed every figure in the animal and vegetable worlds ; endued the various creatures with their respective qualities ; gave laws to universal nature, laws which no power inferior to omnipotence can change ; and appointed that astonishing series of causes and effects, which runs all through the endless race of beings which his hands have made;-I cannot imagine, that there is any error in the choice of them, or that they are inadequate to the divine design in employing them which design was nothing less, than to shew the reality, the nature, and the effects, of that amazing union, which there is betwixt himself and his people.
The branch is one with the vine, and the body is one with the head, but not more truly so than Christ and his people are one. The branch, in consequence of its union with the vine, receives from its sap, life, vigour, foliage, and fruitfulness; and the body through union with the head derives from it life and influence : just so the people of God receive the Holy Spirit, divine life, vigour, influence, fruitfulness, and beauty, from Jesus Christ, the true vine and their ever-living and all glorious head. Without union there could be no communication of sap and life to the branch, nor of sense and influence to the body. In philosophy it would be deemed quite inaccurate to say, that the branch independent of, and before the commencement of its union with the vine, while it lay withered, dead, and dry, at a distance from the vine received from it a supply of sap, by which means it was raised to vegetable life, and endued with prolific power, and that the fruit which it brought forth united it to, and made it one with the vine. Why then should it be thought accurate in theology, to say, that antecedent to their union with Christ the elect receive the Holy Spirit from him, in consequence of which they live and bear fruit, and that by the fruit which they bring forth they are united to him ?
7. We frequently hear that faith unites us to Christ, and that we become one with him by faith. Pray is not faith a fruit which is brought forth by persons who are born of God; a fruit of the divine Spirit produced in them, by his regenerating power and fructifying grace ? Is it then correct ; is it not rather absurd, unscriptural, untrue to say, that it unites us to him who says, " as the branch cannot bear fruit of itself except it abide in the vine, no more can ye except ye abide in me; for without, or severed from me, ye can do nothing?" Our Lord, in these words, plainly shews, that our fruit is not the cause of our union with him, but the effect, and that our union with him is the cause of all the gracious communications which we receive from him; all the delightful communion which we have with him ; and all our spiritual fruitfulness toward God. We are first united to him by a free act of stupendous, matchless love; then we receive the Holy Spirit from him ; then we are regenerated, according to his eternal purpose, "who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will;" and then we bring forth the fruit of faith, and all other fruit connected with it. In this order the only wise God proceeds to make his chosen people fruitful; to humble the pride of man, and to display the riches of his own stupendous wisdom and love. In this divine procedure, all is order, all is harmony, all is beauty. Here the ineffable lustre of eternal wisdom and love meets our eyes, and commands our adoring admiration. Yet in this, as well as in other branches of his inimitable conduct, the Supreme stands corrected by his creatures, who, both in their ideas, and their language, entirely invert this order; and very gravely assure us, that we first believe, and then our faith becomes the efficient cause of our union with Jesus : thus the cause is changed into the effect, and the effect into the cause ; while the dark veil of human confusion conceals divine order and beauty from our view.
8. Perfectly satisfied that union with the head of the church is a precious privilege which exists prior to faith, regeneration, and the impartation of the divine Spirit; we should still proceed in our enquiries after the precise date of it. With the divine records, those infallible guides in our hands, we may advance in our researches beyond the utmost boundaries of time, and enter into eternity; may pry, without presumption, into those mysterious deeps, which, during eternal ages, lay concealed in the infinite mind of the Almighty, but are now made known to the sons of men, in the holy volume of inspiration. Here we read the ancient thoughts of our heavenly Father thoughts of love and peace, of pardon and salvation. Here we view, recorded, with un-impeached integrity, and minute exactness, those amazing transactions of the Godhead, in which all human salvation is found ; and from which, as from an immense ocean of delight, flow all those ample streams of strong consolation, which gladden the heirs of promise, in this vale of temptation and distress. Here we are told, that we were chosen by the Father of mercies in Christ Jesus ; that we had grace given us in him ; that a promise of eternal life was given us by him who cannot lie ; and that all this was done before the foundation of the world. In the detail of these eternal transactions; we behold the date of our union with God, the Son, written in characters the most legible.
9. Upon what ground shall we resist this evidence of the eternity of our union with the Saviour; or by what means shall we invalidate this divine proof of eternal interest in him ? Chosen in him, blessed in him, made partakers of grace in him, in eternity; and yet no union with him, no interest in him till the arrival of certain periods of time. It cannot be if we were chosen in him in eternity, we were then united to him, and made one with him ; and if we were eternally blessed with all spiritual blessings in him, we must have been eternally interested in him. A title to the riches of his fulness is founded upon interest in him ; interest in him is established upon union with him ; and union with him stands upon election in him. God, in his infinite wisdom, and absolute sovereignty, has joined these things together ; let no man endeavour to put them asunder. Again, as the love of God to his people centres in Jesus ; as he does not love them but as in him considered ; and as he loved them before the foundation of the world, they must have been in him before the foundation of the world.
Moreover, as Christ is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever, in all his covenant relations to his church; and as he is now her head and representative, he must have been so before the commencement of time, and she must have been one with him from of old, from everlasting. As in the natural womb, the head and the members are not conceived apart, but in union with each other, so Christ and the church were conceived in the eternal mind, as head and body in perfect union. In that glorious act of sovereign grace, election; head and members were chosen for each other: were chosen as one.
10. But the elect fell in Adam. Granted : but did they fall out of Christ when they fell in him ? No, he who sanctified, choose, or set them apart for himself, preserved them in him to be called. So that although they suffered much by that awful event, they still stood firm in Christ, and their interest in the special love and favour of God, in him, continued immutable.
To conclude this part of the subject ; God, according to his sovereign good will and pleasure, and for his own everlasting praise, did, at once, fix his unchangeable love upon his people ; choose them in Christ ; firmly unite them to him ; and make them one with him. Divine eternal love was the impulsive cause, and is the everlasting bond of this blissful union : we may therefore say of Christ and his church, from everlasting to everlasting they are one.
11. And now we have found the date of our union with Christ, we are not far from that of our justification in him ; for union with him, and justification in him are kindred blessings in the closest connexion, and incapable of separation. They are effects of the same cause, are granted to the same persons, and are stamped with the same date. Let my opponent prove the contrary if he can. But to shew how a person can be in Christ, and be, notwithstanding, unjustified will, it is thought, be a task too difficult for him to perform. All who are united to him are the righteousness of God in him ; and if of God we are in him, he of God is made unto us righteousness.
- 06 Joshua 24:15 - Choose you this day whom ye will serve (1)
- 19 Psalm 02:12 - Kiss the Son (3)
- 19 Psalm 04:05 - Put your trust in the LORD (2)
- 19 Psalm 10:4 - Seek after God (1)
- 19 Psalm 40:8 - Delight to do thy will (1)
- 2. Prayers by Robert Hawker (4)
- 20 Proverbs 01:22-30 - Turn ye at my reproof (4)
- 20 Proverbs 08:17 - Seek me early (1)
- 20 Proverbs 08:17 - Understand wisdom (1)
- 20 Proverbs 23:26 - Give me thine heart (1)
- 40 Matthew 03:2 - Repent ye for the kingdom of heaven is at hand (2)
- 40 Matthew 05-07 (1)
- 40 Matthew 11:21 - They would have repented (2)
- 40 Matthew 13:19 - Lest he should believe and be saved (1)
- 40 Matthew 13:58 - Because of their unbelief (1)
- 40 Matthew 19:16 - What good thing shall I do that I may inherit eternal life (1)
- 40 Matthew 21:28-32 - The two sons (1)
- 40 Matthew 22:01-14 - As many as ye shall find bid to the marriage (3)
- 40 Matthew 23:37 - Ye would not (1)
- 41 Mark 01:15 - Repent ye and believe the Gospel (1)
- 41 Mark 05:36 - Be not afraid only believe (1)
- 41 Mark 06:12 - They preached that men should repent (1)
- 41 Mark 12:01-9 - The wicked husbandmen (1)
- 41 Mark 16:16 - He that believeth not shall be damned (5)
- 42 Luke 03:3 - Preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins (1)
- 42 Luke 07:50 - Thy faith hath saved thee (1)
- 42 Luke 13:03 - Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish (1)
- 42 Luke 13:24 - Strive to enter in at the strait gate (2)
- 42 Luke 14:16-24 - Compel them to come in that my house may be filled (2)
- 42 Luke 19:27 - Those mine enemies which would not that I should reign over them (2)
- 42 Luke 24:47 - Repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name (1)
- 43 John 03:18-19 - He that believeth not is condemned already (1)
- 43 John 03:36 - He that believeth not the Son shall not see life (1)
- 43 John 06:27 - [Labour] for that meat which endureth unto eternal life (2)
- 43 John 06:29 - This is the work of God that ye believe on him whom he hath sent (3)
- 43 John 06:37 - Him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out (1)
- 43 John 06:53 - Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink His blood (1)
- 43 John 08:46 - If I say the truth why do ye not believe Me (1)
- 43 John 10:24-29 - Ye believe not because ye are not of my sheep (1)
- 43 John 12:36 - believe in the light that ye might be the children of light (3)
- 43 John 14:1 - Ye believe in God believe also in me (2)
- 43 John 16:8-9 - He will reprove the world of sin because they believe not on me (2)
- 43 John 20:31 - These are written that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ the Son of God (1)
- 44 Acts 17:30-31 - [God] now commandeth all men every where to repent (3)
- 45 Romans 01:05 - Obedience to the faith (1)
- 45 Romans 04:23-24 - If we believe (1)
- 45 Romans 05:01 - Being justified by faith (1)
- 45 Romans 10:16 - They have not all obeyed the Gospel (1)
- 45 Romans 9:31-32 - They sought it not by faith (1)
- 47 2Corinthians 04:3-4 - Them that believe not (1)
- 62 1John 1:09 - If we confess our sins He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins (1)
- 62 1John 2:01 - We have an advocate with the Father (1)
- 66 Revelation 22:17 - Whosoever will (1)
Free Grace Expositions
- DG19 - Psalm 003:08 - Salvation belongeth unto the LORD (1)
- DG23 - Isa 01:4-9 - A people laden with iniquity (1)
- DG23 - Isa 02:02 - All nations shall flow unto it (1)
- DG23 - Isa 03:10 - It shall be well with him (1)
- DG23 - Isa 04:03-4 - Every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem (1)
- DG23 - Isa 43:24-25 - He that blotteth out thy transgressions (1)
- DG43 - John 01:05 - The darkness comprehended it not (1)
- DG43 - John 03:03-8 - Ye must be born again (1)
- DG43 - John 04:04 - He must needs go through Samaria (1)
- DG43 - John 08:34-36 - ye shall be free indeed (1)
- DG43 - John 11:47-53 - He should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad (1)
- DG45 - Rom 01:05-7 - By whom we have received grace (1)
- DG45 - Rom 07:01-4 - She is free from that law (1)
- DG46 - 1Co 01:02-3 - Unto the church of God (1)
- DG46 - 1Co 01:08-9 - Confirm you unto the end (1)
- DG46 - 1Co 01:18 and 21 - Preaching to save them that believe (1)
- DG46 - 1Co 01:26-29 - God hath chosen (1)
- DG46 - 1Co 01:30-31 - Of him are ye in Christ Jesus (1)
- DG46 - 1Co 02:14 and 16 - We have the mind of Christ (1)
- DG46 - 1Co 03:21-23 - All are yours and ye are Christ's (1)
- DG49 - Eph 1:04-5 - He hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world (1)
- DG49 - Eph 2:08-9 - By grace are ye saved through faith and that not of yourselves (1)
- DG50 - Php 1:01-2 - Grace be unto you (1)
- DG50 - Php 1:06 - A good work in you (1)
- DG50 - Php 1:29 - Unto you it is given (1)
- DG50 - Php 3:21 - Fashioned like unto his glorious body (1)
- DG50 - Php 4:02-3 - Whose names are in the book of life (1)
- DG50 - Php 4:08-9 - The God of peace shall be with you (1)
- DG50 - Php 4:13 and 19 - Christ which strengtheneth me (1)
- DG60 - 1Pe 2:24 - His own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree (1)
- Q-Against Duty Faith (38)
- Q-Against Indiscriminate Offers (2)
- Q-Antinomianism (7)
- Q-Arminianism (4)
- Q-Assurance (3)
- Q-Baxterianism (4)
- Q-Believer's Rule of Life (4)
- Q-Biographies (1)
- Q-Church Ordinances (4)
- Q-Comfort (12)
- Q-Compassion for the Lost (2)
- Q-Divorce and Remarriage (3)
- Q-Electing Love (6)
- Q-Encouragement to Pray (4)
- Q-Eternal Sonship Defended (3)
- Q-False Teachers (20)
- Q-Gospel Error and False Brethren (3)
- Q-Guilt Transferred to Christ (13)
- Q-Hymns (2)
- Q-Infant salvation (2)
- Q-Justification from Eternity (7)
- Q-Law and Gospel Distinction (2)
- Q-Neonomianism (8)
- Q-Particular Redemption (12)
- Q-Providence (10)
- Q-Regeneration precedes Conversion (6)
- Q-Sanctification (6)
- Q-Sensible Sinners (2)
- Q-Testimonies (6)
- Q-The Gospel Call (8)
- Q-The Nature of Faith (10)
- Q-The Old and New Man (2)
- Q-The Proper use of the Law (9)
- Q-Time Salvation [Gospel Salvation] (3)
- Rewards According to Labor (1)
- Time Salvation [Gospel Salvation] (6)